Adhika Masa (purushottama masa) 2020.

 Technicalities of Adhika Masa 2020

adhika masa 2020

It was found by our ancient seers that a Lunar month will have duration of 29 days 12 hours and 44 minutes that add up to 354 days and 9 hours in a year, falling short of the solar year of 365 days by about 11 days (approx). Accumulation of this difference of more than 30 days in a span of three years results in sliding of a Lunar month in relation to solar calendar. Such progressive recession of Lunar months leads to disparity in the celebration of festivals and the seasons they occur which are dependent on Solar Calendar.

Therefore in order to synchronize the Lunar months with Luni-Solar calendar and to keep in pace with the seasons our ancient seers have formulated a concept or technique of restraining Lunar months and devised an intercalary month for the Lunar Calendar. Thus, as and when there is an accumulation of recession by about 30 days, a Lunar month is added to the year. This extra month known as Adhika Masam occurs at regular intervals of 32 or 33 solar months to maintain the balance between Solar and Lunar Calendars.Thus it can be seen that an intercalary month (Adhika Masa) occurs once in two/three years in the normal course.

The rationale behind that is based on the calendar system they use . People of Tamil Nadu and Kerala follow the Souramana (solar calendar system) which is based on the Raasi (Zodiac) . And Telugu and Karnataka people use Chandramana (lunar calendar system) which is based in Thithi.

So when Sun enters the Mesha rasi( vernal equinox) it is new year for Tamil(Puthandu) and malayalam(Vishu) people and on pratahama(first) thithi in Chaitra (first month) is celebrated as new year (Yugadi/Ugadi) for Telugu and Kannada people.

Solar month has 30 to 31 days, whereas lunar month has 29.5 days. Lunar year comprises 354 days whereas solar month has 365 days. Every year there is a  difference of 11 days is there between solar and lunar years. The difference increases to 29 to 30 days in 2 to 3 years.  This comprises one whole month, these days are added to lunar calender, so that lunar and solar calenders become similar.

Sri Lakshmi Devi asked Sri Hari how to perform adika masa vrata. Lord Sri Hari said he himself is the lord of adika masa and this masa is called as PURUSHOTTAMA MASA.  Good deeds like Japa, homa, fasting, parayana, dana, pradakshina

Charities during Adhika Masam lot of significance is given and is considered highly meritorious to give charity during Adhika Masam.

Naktha Bhojana- Eating one time meals at night with complete fasting during day time and avoiding eating of Urad/Urad dal and preparations made out of it during this period.

Eka Bhuktha - It is opposite of the above, eating only once during day time and not taking any food till next day.

Uposhana- Completely avoiding meals and taking only milk and fruits during the vratha period.

Mouna Vratha- Observing total silence and not talking to any one for a specific period of time every day during the vratha period.

Akhanda Deepa- Lighting a lamp (Akhanda Deepa) in Pooja Room and allowing it to glow continuously through out the vratha period (day and night). Only Ghee or Thil Oil should be used for lighting of Deepa.

 Parana - Fasting on one day and eating on the next day during the vratha period.

Anantha Phalam- Charity should always be accompanied with proper Dakshina according to ones capacity.

Apoopa Dana- Apoopa means a sweet dish made with Rice flour, jaggery and Ghee. Such sweet dish 33 in number should be given as charity to a Brahmin along with a Brass plate.   According to ones  capacity this can be given on every day or during specified days or at least on one of the specified days during the vratha period. This type of charity is considered to be highly meritorious and bestows significant results.

Phala Dana- Seasonal fruits or Banana 33 in number can be given as charity as said above.

Thaamboola Dana- Betel leaves , Areca Nut, either a fruit or a Coconut, Dakshina should be given to Brahmin couple.

  Apart from the above some of the other austerities include, eating food without salt, sleeping on the floor avoiding cot and bed, Lakshavarti(preparing one lakh cotton wicks and lighting lamps with it), avoiding cutting of nails and hair etc…Anna Dana, DeepaDana, Baagina Dana, Pusthaka Dana (Sacred scripts like Bhagavatha),Sayya Dana (Bed Sheet + Blanket + Pillow) along with Lakshmi Narayana Prathima, Godana (donating a Cow), Thila Dana along with a Brass vessel,

Lord Sri Hari said to Devi those who do not do any good deeds they suffer from Daridrya(povertty), putrashoka(loss of son).

our ancient seers to establish a suitable time division of Lunar Month on which our religious calendar (Almanac) is based. Lunar month commonly observed in our Lunar Calendar is known as Amaanta starting from the end moment of New Moon (Amavasya) to the end moment of the next New Moon. A Lunar month is a period starting from Sukla Prathama (Paadyami)and ending with Krishna (Bahula) Amavasya. Similarly another noticeable feature was the occurrence and recurrence of seasons known as Ruthus.These phenomena made our seers to notice the obvious movement of the Luminaries on a clear cut path known as zodiac that is divided into twelve signs or Raasis. Movement of Sun from one sign to the other in the zodiac is reckoned as Sankranthi or Sankramana. The period between two Sankrantis(transit of Sun from one sign or raasi to the other) is taken as Soura or a Solar month. One complete cycle of Sun around the zodiac starting from Aries and ending with Pisces is known as a Solar year. Since Vedic times our ancient seers are perhaps the pioneers to combine successfully the solar calendar into the lunar one.

One can also take up any other austerity that pleases Lord Sri Maha Vishnu. In this regard one can consider writing of Sri Rama Nama during the Vratha period the simplest austerity with great benefits. While writing Rama Nama one should also recite the same silently.


Pithru Karma during Adhika Masa

Nitya Karma, Amavasya, Yugaadi, Manvaadi related Pithru karmas should be performed both in Adhika Masa as well as in Nija Masa. If annual ceremony of deceased known as Prathisaamvatsareeka Sraaddha falls during the month when Adhika Masam occurs it should be performed in Adhika Masam provided the concerned Pithru had expired during Adhika Masam. Otherwise it should be performed only during Nija Masam.  Also means to say that, in case the deceased had expired in Nija Masam in normal course the shraaddha should be performed during Nija Masam and not in the Adhika Masam. In case Adhika Masam coincides withMaasika (monthly) cermonies during the first year of Pithru’s death, the concerned Maasika shraaddha should be performed twice both in Adhika masam as well as in Nija masam. In case if the 12th month ceremony coincides with Adhika Masam then that Maasika ceremony should be performed twice both in Adhika Masa as well asin Nija Masa and the first annual ceremony (Prathamaabdeeka) should be performed in the 14th month.In case Adhika Masam coincides with Dasa Dina Karma all the related ceremonies including Sapindeekarana should be performed only during Adhika Masam. In case the first annual ceremony happens to fall during Adhika Masam its hould be performed during Adhika Masam only even though they had expired during Nija Masam.

 Some of the  rituals to be avoided during AdhikaMasam are Upanayana samskara, Vivaha, Gruha Pravesa, Shasti Poorthi and Devatha Prathista etc…

  However, rituals like Garbhadaana, Pumsavana, Seemantha, Naamakarana, Annapraasana etc…can be performed during Adhika Masam

King Nahusha attained Indra padavi by observing ADHIKA MASA vrata.

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